Science and earth science

Acta Geologica Polonica

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Acta Geologica Polonica | 2020 | vol. 70 | No 3 |

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Abstract

Successions exposed in the Agadir Basin (upper Albian to middle Turonian), in the Anti-Atlas (lower Turonian) in Morocco and in central Tunisia (Cenomanian–Turonian) yield abundant microcrinoids of the family Roveacrinidae, which are described and assigned to 32 species and formae, in ten genera. The following new taxa are described: Fenestracrinus gen. nov. with the type species F. oculifer sp. nov., Discocrinus africanus sp. nov., Styracocrinus rimafera sp. nov., Lebenharticrinus quinvigintensis sp. nov., L. zitti sp. nov., Euglyphocrinus cristagalli sp. nov., E. jacobsae sp. nov., E. truncatus sp. nov., E. worthensis sp. nov., Roveacrinus gladius sp. nov., R. solisoccasum sp. nov. and Drepanocrinus wardorum sp. nov. In addition, the new subfamily Plotocrininae is erected. The stratigraphical distribution of the taxa in two important localities, Taghazout in the Agadir Basin (Morocco) and Sif el Tella, Djebel Mhrila (central Tunisia), is provided. The faunas from the uppermost Albian and lowermost Cenomanian of the Agadir Basin are nearly identical to those recorded from central Texas, USA, some 5,300 km away, and permit a detailed correlation (microcrinoid biozones CeR1 and CeR2) to be established across the southern part of the Western Tethys, independently supported by new ammonite records. For the middle and upper Cenomanian, rather few detailed records of microcrinoids are available elsewhere, and the North African record forms the basis for a new zonation (CeR3–CeR6). The distribution of Turonian Roveacrinidae in North Africa is evidently very similar to that described in the Anglo-Paris Basin, and zones TuR1–3, TuR9, 10 and 14 are recognised for the first time in the Tethys.

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Authors and Affiliations

Andrew Scott Gale
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Abstract

Morphometric attributes of 705 stromatoporoid specimens from a number of exposures from the Silurian of Podolia (Ukraine) and the Devonian of the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland), representing a wide array of shallow water carbonate sedimentary environments, have been analysed. Taken into account were such parameters as: general shape of the skeleton, shape of the final growth form (living surface profile), upper surface character, latilaminae arrangement, burial ratio and type of initial surface. A number of new ratios has been introduced, designed mainly to improve the mapping of the outlines of the stromatoporoids upper surfaces. All studied specimens were treated as belonging to one group, and relations between particular attributes were tested. The results were analysed in terms of potential environmental factors influencing stromatoporoid morphometric features. Most of the distinguished attributes are common in the studied group and occur in various combinations, with an important exception of parameters designed to reflect the shape of the skeleton’s upper surface, which are distinctly predominated by convex variants. This indicates that surface concavity was a highly undesired feature among stromatoporoids. Upper surface convexity is interpreted herein as a response to the hazard of clogging of the animals pores by tiny sediment particles suspended in the bottom turbid water layer. Common low burial ratios of final living surface profiles and the occurrence of specimens with a smooth upper surface but a non-enveloping latilaminae arrangement are other reflections of this phenomenon. Burial by sediments and redeposition were also important factors governing stromatoporoid development. No direct arguments indicating photosensitivity of stromatoporoids can be deduced from the presented results. The hitherto postulated allometric tendency among stromatoporoids of starting growth as laminar forms and later adopting consecutively higher profile shapes has not been confirmed here. On the contrary, a tendency for gradual elimination of very high profile forms with increasing stromatoporoid size has been observed. The final shape of a stromatoporoid skeleton was always an effect of a combination of various agents.

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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Łuczyński
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Abstract

Very rare chondrichthyan spines from the Famennian (Upper Devonian) of European Russia are referred here to ctenacanthiforms, euselachians and a chondrichthyan group of uncertain systematic position. Ctenacanthus Agassiz, 1837 is recorded from the lower and middle Famennian of the central and north-western parts of the area. Sculptospina makhlaevi Lebedev gen. et sp. nov. originates from the lower Famennian of the Lipetsk Region. The holotype of ‘Ctenacanthus jaekeli Gross, 1933 and a new specimen from the upper Famennian of the South Urals are shown to belong to the same taxon, which is transferred to Acondylacanthus St. John and Worthen, 1875. New specimens of Tuberospina nataliae Lebedev, 1995 from the upper Famennian of Central Russia are described in detail. The newly presented material increases our knowledge of the composition of Famennian marine assemblages from the East European Platform. It is suggested that these assemblages may be classified as chondrichthyan-dominated and dipnoan-dominated. Hypothetically, after the end- Devonian Hangenberg extinction event, which affected numerous secondary consumers in vertebrate communities, some chondrichthyan groups could have encroached to take advantage of previously occupied ecological niches. Ctenacanthus, as well as Acondylacanthus and Amelacanthus survived the end-Devonian mass extinction to continue into the Carboniferous.

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Authors and Affiliations

Oleg A. Lebedev
Alexander O. Ivanov
Valeriy V. Linkevich
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Abstract

Raman spectroscopy and vitrinite reflectance measurements of dispersed organic matter from Carboniferous shales in boreholes in the northern part of the Intra-Sudetic Basin were used for thermal history reconstruction. Microscopic investigations have shown that the organic matter is dominated by the vitrinite maceral group. In analysed samples, organic matter shows a varied degree of thermal alteration determined by the mean random vitrinite reflectance (VRo) ranging from 0.72% to 3.80%. Mean apparent maximum vitrinite reflectance (R’max) values reached 4.98%. The full width at half maximum of D1 and G bands in Raman spectra are well-correlated with mean VRo and R’max. Thermal maturity in the boreholes shows a regular increase with depth. Geological data combined with Raman spectroscopy and mean vitrinite reflectance results indicate that the analysed Carboniferous strata reached maximum paleotemperatures from c. 110 to c. 265°C. The regional paleogeothermal gradient in the late Paleozoic was c. 80°C/km. The Variscan heating event presumably caused a major coalification process of organic matter. The Carboniferous–Permian magmatic activity must have contributed to high heat flow, adding to the effect of sedimentary burial on the thermal maturity.

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Authors and Affiliations

Dariusz Botor
Tomasz Toboła
Marta Waliczek
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Abstract

During the late Oligocene to early Miocene the residual Magura Basin was located along the front of the Pieniny Klippen Belt (PKB). This basin was supplied with clastic material derived from a south-eastern direction. In the Małe (Little) Pieniny Mts. in Poland, the late Oligocene/ early Miocene Kremna Fm. of the Magura Nappe (Krynica subunit) occurs both in front of the PKB as well as in the tectonic windows within the PKB. Lenses of exotic conglomerates in the Kremna Fm. contain frequent clasts of Mesozoic limestones (e.g. limestones with “filaments” microfacies and Urgonian limestones) and Eocene shallow-water limestones. Fragments of crystalline and volcanic rocks occur subordinately. The provenance of these exotic rocks could be probably connected with Eocene exhumation and erosion of the SE part of the Dacia and Tisza Mega-Units.

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Authors and Affiliations

Nestor Oszczypko
Marta Oszczypko-Clowes
Barbara Olszewska
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Abstract

Approximately 80% of water extracted from oil and gas deposits in Poland is disposed of by injection into the rock matrix. The aim of the model research was to predict both the hydrochemical reactions of water injected into wells for its disposal and the hydrogeochemical processes in the reservoir formation. The purpose of hydrogeochemical modeling of the hydrocarbon formation was also to determine the potential of formation waters, injection waters, and their mixtures to precipitate and form mineral sediments, and to determine the corrosion risk to the well. In order to evaluate saturation indices and corrosion ratios, the geochemical programs PHREEQC and DownHole SAT were used. The results of hydrogeochemical modeling indicate the possible occurrence of clogging in the well and the near-well zone caused mainly by the precipitation of iron compounds (iron hydroxide Fe(OH)3 and siderite FeCO3) from the formation water due to the presence of high pressures and temperatures (HPHT). There is also a high certainty of the precipitation of carbonate sediments (calcite CaCO3, strontianite SrCO3, magnesite MgCO3, siderite FeCO3) from the injection water within the whole range of tested pressures and temperatures. The model simulations show that temperature increase has a much greater impact on the potential for precipitation of mineral phases than pressure increase.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ewa Krogulec
Katarzyna Sawicka
Sebastian Zabłocki

Editorial office

Editor-in-Chief
Ireneusz Walaszczyk, Faculty of Geology, University of Warsaw, Poland

Editorial Advisory Board Andrzej Radwański, University of Warsaw, Poland Zdzisław Bełka, Adam Mickiewicz University Poland Max Laurence Coleman, The University of Reading, U.K. Jerzy Fedorowski, Adam Mickiewicz University Poland Ryszard Gradziński, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland Peter J. Harries, University of South Florida, USA John W.M. Jagt, Natuurhistorisch Museum Maastricht, The Netherlands William James Kennedy, Oxford Natural History Museum, U.K. Jan Kutek, University of Warsaw, Poland Anatoly MikhailovicNikishin, Moscow State Univesity, Russia Nestor Oszczypko, Jagiellonian University, Poland Michał Szulczewski, University of Warsaw, Poland Karl-Armin Tröger, Technische Universiät, Freiberg, Germany Sue Turner, Queensland Musem, Australia Alfred Uchman, Jagiellonian University, Poland Jerzy Znosko, Stage Geological Survey, Poland Andrzej Żelaźniewicz, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland

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Institute of Geology
University of Warsaw
Al. Zwirki i Wigury 93
02-089 Warszawa, Poland
Phone: +48-22-5540422
Fax: +48-22-5540001
e-mail: agp@uw.edu.pl

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