Applied sciences

Archives of Civil Engineering

Content

Archives of Civil Engineering | 2019 | Vol. 65 | No 4 |

Abstract

The study investigates the axial load behaviour of concrete filled battened steel columns not covered by the design standards. A series of full scale tests on two I-sections connected together with intermediate batten plates and filled with concrete were carried out. The main parameters varied in the tests are length of the members and strength of the concrete filling. One bare steel member was also tested and results were compared with those filled with concrete. The tests results were illustrated by load-strain curves. The main objectives of these tests were twofold: first, to describe behaviour of new steel-concrete columns and second, to analyze the influence of slenderness on load-carrying capacity.

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Abstract

As the dynamic behavior of the concrete is different from that under static load, this research focuses on the study of dynamic responses of concrete by simulating the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) test. Finite element code LS-DYNA is used for modeling the dynamic behaviors of concrete. Three continuous models are reviewed and the Holmquist-Johnson-Cook model (HJC) is introduced in detail. The HJC model which has been implemented in LS-DYNA is used to represent the concrete properties. The SHPB test model is established and a few stress waves are applied to the incident bar to simulate the dynamic concrete behaviors. The stress-strain curves are obtained. The stress distributions are analyzed. The crack initiation and propagation process are described. It is concluded that: the HJC model can modeling the entire process of the fracture initiation and fragmentation; the compressive of the concrete is significantly influenced by the strain rates.

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Abstract

The aim of the paper is to assess the values of shear (delaminating) stress in the composition plane between the concrete (RC) deck slab and wood girder from concrete shrinkage, and shrinkage and swelling of wood, as well as difference in temperature between the wood web and concrete slab.

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Abstract

The article discusses the basic issues related to the technology of friction stir welding (FSW). A short description of technology is provided. The following section provides the analysis of effect of technological parameters (tool rotation and welding speed) on the mechanical properties of the prepared joint (strength, ductility, microhardness). In both cases the analysis refers to aluminum alloys (6056 and AA2195-T0). The comparative analysis showed the phenomenon of the increase in weld strength along with the increase in the rotational speed of the tool during welding. Similarly, with the increase in welding speed, an increase in weld strength was observed. Some exceptions have been observed from the above relations, as described in the article. In addition, examples of material hardness distribution in the joint are presented, indicating their lack of symmetry, caused by the rotational movement of the tool. The analyses were performed basing on the literature data.

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Abstract

The recycle of the building and demolition waste could reduce project expenses and save natural resources as well as solve problem about environmental risks incurred during the disposal of building waste. In this study, waste C30 concrete is taken an experimental material. The mass loss, ultrasonic velocity, dynamic modulus of elasticity and cubic compressive strength of recycled coarse aggregate concrete whose coarse aggregate replacement percentage is 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% are tested and compared with NAC when the cycles of freezing and thawing are 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 times. The results show: (1) Generally, the loss of mass, ultrasonic velocity, dynamic modulus of elasticity and cubic compressive strength constantly increase with the growth of freezing and thawing cycles. (2) Compared with the recycled concrete of other replacement percentages, the RAC50 shows relatively close performance to NAC in mass loss, the change of dynamic modulus of elasticity and cubic compressive strength. (3) Performances of RAC25 specimens are better than the other RAC specimens for the ultrasonic wave velocity.

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Abstract

The authors developed the definition of construction defect and fault and construction defect management based on Polish and foreign publications. In order to assist identification of faults and their analysis in the process of home collection, the authors applied the Case Based Reasoning (CBR) method. In the paper, the authors used Case Based Reasoning (CBR) to support acceptance of apartments. The CBR method allows to determine the magnitude of global similarity for the problem under consideration between the new and old case from the Case Base, using weighted sums of local similarities using criteria weights as coefficients. As a result of CBR-based solutions, an Employer’s representative receives information about the type of construction defects that can be expected, their location and significance, occurrence frequency, and estimated repair cost.

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Abstract

The paper presents the method of simplified parametric analysis of the sensitivity of a pre-tensioned concrete beam. The presented approach is based on the DOE (design of experiments) data collection which is simulation technique allowing for identification of variables deciding about the effectiveness and costs of designed structures. Additionally, application of the hyper-surface of the construction response allows designers to the development of multi-dimensional trade-off graphs to facilitate, the assessment of the scope of changes in random state variables permitted due to the adequate criteria and selection of their values close to optimum. Design basics, procedures and results of the presented considerations of sensitivity assessment and reliability of the structure has been shown on the example of a pre-stressed concrete beam designed in accordance with the requirements and procedures of Eurocode 2.

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Abstract

The paper deals with determination of flexural resistance buckling curves for welded I-section steel members made of high strength steel (S 690). In the paper the previously proposed BF analytical model is used for approximation of FEM results obtained using moderately large deformation shell theory and ABAQUS/Standard software. Final formulation of flexural resistance buckling curves is possible through the use of the Merchant-Rankine-Murzewski approach adopted extensively in the authors’ previous papers. For nonlinear optimization, which is needed for analytical model parameters determination, the Wolfram Mathematica package is used. Obtained results for S 690 steel are presented against the results for S 355 steel.

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Abstract

Experimental tests of steel unstiffened double side bolted end-plate joints have been presented. The main aim of the conducted tests was to check the behavior of joints in an accidental situation and possibility of creating secondary mechanism, i.e. catenary action in the scenario of column loss. Two types of end plate joints were tested: flush end-plate (FP) and extended end-plate (EP) with different thickness and different number of bolt rows in each. The tests were carried out on an isolated cross beam-column-beam type system until joint failure. During tests the available moment resistance and rotation capacity of bending joints and also values of tension forces in the beam were determined. The joints with extended end-plate have demonstrated higher bending and rotational capacity than flush end-plate. Significant deformation of column flanges, web and end plate were observed. The fracture of bolts was the failure mode of joints. Obtained results of axial force values in beam exceeded standard requirement what confirmed that the joints with unstiffened web column, flush or extended end-plate possess the ability of development the catenary action.

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Abstract

This paper investigates the influence of isolation systems on the seismic behavior of urban reinforce concrete bridge. The performance of the Hesarak Bridge constructed in Karaj city, Iran with two isolation systems; i.e. the existing elastomeric rubber bearing (ERB) and a proposed lead rubber bearing (LRB) is discussed. The numerical model was implemented in the well-known FEM software CSIBridge. The isolated bridge has been analyzed using nonlinear time history analysis method with seven pairs of earthquake records and the results are compared for the two isolation systems. The LRB isolators are shown to have superior seismic performance in comparison with the existing ERB systems based on the response evaluation including force on the isolator, pier base shear, deck acceleration, bending moment, pier displacement, and energy dissipation.

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Abstract

A lot of heat will generate in mass concrete after pouring to form temperature cracks, which will reduce structural stiffness. This paper briefly introduces the principle of solid heat conduction and the cause of temperature crack formation and then used COMSOL software to simulate and analyze the mass concrete. The results showed that the simulation model had enough reliability to analyze the temperature change; the internal and external temperature of concrete rose first and then decreased; the formation of temperature crack was related to the internal and external temperature difference; the internal and external temperature difference was inversely proportional to the heat conductivity coefficient of concrete and directly proportional to the pouring temperature. Then, according to the analysis results, two measures were put forward to prevent temperature cracks in mass concrete: selecting concrete materials with high thermal conductivity, i.e., selecting coarse aggregate and fine aggregate with larger heat conductivity coefficient and reducing concrete pouring temperature, i.e., selecting cement with lower hydration heat, paying attention to temperature reduction in the process of concrete stirring, and reducing the amount of cement.

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Abstract

This study analyzed the role of PERFORM 3D in the preliminary evaluation of seismic performance of engineering structures. Firstly, PERFORM 3D was briefly introduced, and its material constitutive model and basic model were analyzed. Then, taking a high-rise building project in Yulin, Shaanxi, China, as an example, PERFORM 3D was used to evaluate its seismic performance. After establishing the engineering model, five seismic waves were selected for simulation. The results showed that the maximum values of X-axis inter-story displacement angle and Y-axis displacement angle were 1/500 and 1/360 respectively, which were far less than the standard limit; the overall energy dissipation was good, the damping was small, the overall deformation was good, and the seismic performance was also good. In conclusion, PERFORM 3D has a good performance in the preliminary evaluation of seismic performance of engineering, and it is worth further promotion and application.

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Abstract

The aim of the research is laboratory investigation of aluminium brackets employed to fasten lightweight curtain walls to building facilities. Tensile loads perpendicular to end plates (vertical) were applied here. The author focused on the solutions intended to increase the load-carrying capacity of aluminium brackets applying the plain washer form A (DIN 125; ISO 7089), plain washer with an outer diameter about 3d (DIN 9021; ISO 7093) and additional cover plates (straps) in the location of bolt anchoring on the base plate. The aluminium brackets were tested on a steel base and concrete substrate. The flexibility of anchoring strongly affects the increase of the end plate middle point displacement and movable crosshead displacement.

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Abstract

The paper presents an analysis of the behaviour of bent reinforced concrete beams strengthened with CFRP laminates fixed with adhesive before and after unloading, and more importantly, an analysis of the work of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with pre-stressed CFRP laminates fixed with adhesive. The analyses were based on a moment-curvature model prepared by the author for reinforced concrete beams strengthened under load with pre-stressed CFRP laminates. The model was used to determine the effect of compression with CFRP laminates and their mechanical properties on the effectiveness of strengthening the reinforced concrete beams analysed in this study.

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Abstract

The research was aimed at analysing the factors that affect the accuracy of merging point clouds when scanning over longer distances. Research takes into account the limited possibilities of target placement occurring while scanning opposite benches of quarries or open-pit mines, embankments from opposite banks of rivers etc. In all these cases, there is an obstacle/void between the scanner and measured object that prevents the optimal location of targets and enlarging scanning distances. The accuracy factors for cloud merging are: the placement of targets relative to the scanner and measured object, the target type and instrument range. Tests demonstrated that for scanning of objects with lower accuracy requirements, over long distances, it is optimal to choose flat targets for registration. For objects with higher accuracy requirements, scanned from shorter distances, it is worth selecting spherical targets. Targets and scanned object should be on the same side of the void.

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Abstract

New computational procedures developed within the framework of international research projects „Grispe” and „Grispe Plus” are briefly presented and characterised here. Considered algorithms pertain to the verification of bearing capacity and serviceability of selected bearing structure components erected with especially shaped thinwalled sheet metal panels. Structural components of this type are so far rather absent from the codes, and as a result the unequivocal design requirements have not been developed for them. Key problems related to the detailed analysis of the following element classes: steel decks with embossments, indentations and/or outwards stiffeners; liner trays; corrugated sheeting; curved profiles; cladding and roof profile assemblies; perforated and holed profiles; external interlocking planks and their assemblies are indicated in the text. The procedures formulated as a part of the projects indicated above have been delivered to CEN as an official proposal of amendments and/or additions submitted for introduction to the new generation of Eurocodes currently under preparation, and especially as an extension to the code EN 1993-1-3.

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Abstract

Construction and demolition (C&D) waste management should be accordance with the waste management hierarchy. In practice, C&D waste are often downcycling. It is the result of many factors, including lack of awareness about the value inherent in waste. The paper presents analysis of the adaptability of non-destructive testing (NDT) methods for technical assessment of waste properties. As part of the work, non-destructive testing methods were described and classified in accordance with material and the features they enable testing. The publication presents examples of the use of NDT in the recovery of building materials during construction projects, in the field of influence of technical information of waste on the way it is managed. Finally, a scheme of waste management process during the renovation of an object with the application of NDT methods was presented.

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Abstract

The paper concerns a strength optimization of continuous beams with variable cross-section. The continuous beams are subjected to a dead weight and a useful load, the six (seven) combinations of loads were analyzed. Optimal design problems in structural mechanics can by mathematically formulated as optimal control tasks. To solve the above formulated optimization problems, the minimum principle was applied. The paper is an introductory and survey paper of the treatment of realistically modelled optimal control problems from application in the structural mechanics. Especially those problems are considered, which include different types of constraints. The optimization problem is reduced to the solution of multipoint boundary value problems (MPBVP) composed of differential equations. Dimension of MPBVP is usually a large number, what produces numerical difficulties. Optimal control theory does not give much information about the control structure. The correctness of the assumed control structure can be checked after obtaining the solution of the boundary problem.

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Abstract

Most construction projects involve subcontracting some work packages. A subcontractor is employed on the basis of their bid as well as according to their availability. A viable schedule must account for resource availability constraints. These resources (e.g. crews, subcontractors) engage in many projects, so they become at the disposal for a new project only in certain periods. One of the key tasks of a planner is thus synchronizing the work of resources between concurrent projects. The paper presents a mathematical model of the problem of selecting subcontractors or general contractor’s crews for a time-constrained project that accounts for the availability of contractors, as well as for the cost of subcontracting works. The proposed mixed integer-binary linear programming model enables the user to perform the time/cost trade-off analysis.

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Abstract

In the paper an alternative method for increasing punching shear resistance of the flat slabs from lightweight aggregate concrete by means of hidden steel fibre reinforced capital was presented. Previous experimental studies demonstrated that the addition of steel fibres to concrete allows for increase in the punching shear resistance of flat slab. Steel fibres modify the tensile strength of concrete, which translates into increased ductility of the material. The results of the experimental investigations were presented, the aim of which was to assess the effectiveness of the proposed solution. For economic and technological reasons, a hidden capital of a height equal to half of the slabs depth was made so that the top reinforcement could be installed later. It was found that presented solution allowed to increase the load carrying capacity by about 36% with respect to the control element, made entirely of lightweight aggregate concrete.

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